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HISTORY OF THE CANONGATE
Page 2 of 5

On the same side of the street, opposite to the archway leading into St. John Street, Jack's Land, a lofty stone tenement, formed, in her latter years, the residence of the beautiful Susannah, Countess of Eglinton, and there she was frequently visited by the famous Lady Jane Douglas during the vexed progress of "the Douglas cause;" and in another flat thereof resided David Hume, who came thither from Ridder's Land in 1753, while engaged on his History of England."

"The Shoemakers' Lands, which stand to the east of Jack's Land," says Wilson, writing in 1847, " are equally lofty and more picturesque buildings. One of them especially, opposite to Moray House, is a very singular and striking object in the stately range of substantial stone tenements that extend from New Street to the Canongate Tolbooth. A highly-adorned tablet surmounts the main entrance, enriched with angels' heads and a border of Elizabethan ornament enclosing the shoemakers' arms, with the date 1677.

An open book is inscribed with the first verse of the Scottish metre version of the one hundred and thirty-third Psalm-a motto which appears to have been of special repute towards the close of the seventeenth century among the suburban corporations, being also inscribed over the '-Tailors' Hall of Eastern Portsburgh and the Shoemakers' Land in the West Port. The turn-pike stair, the entrance to which is graced by this motto and the further inscription, in smaller letters,

'IT IS AN HONOUR FOR MAN TO CEASE FROM STRIFE,'

rises above the roof of the building, and is crowned by an ogee roof of singular character, flanked on either side by picturesque gables to the street. The first of the two tenements to the west of this, at the head of Shoemakers' Close, has an open panel on its front, from which the inscription appears to have been removed; but the other, which bears the date 1725, is still adorned with the same arms, and the following moral aphorism:-

BLESSED IS HE THAT WISELY DO
THE POOR MAN'S CASE CONSIDER.

We have referred to the mansion of the Marquis of Huntly, in the Canongate, and the marriage of his daughters therein. This singularly picturesque and antique edifice stands on the southern side of the street, opposite the old Tolbooth, and is erroneously said to have been at one time the Royal Mint.
Here George, sixth Earl and first Marquis of Huntly, is said to have resided-the same noble who was suspected of corresponding and conspiring with Spain, In his " History of the 'Troubles," Spalding tells us that this peer, in June, 1636, was borne from his lodging in the Canongate, in the desire of reaching his northern house in Badenoch, but got no farther than Dundee, where he died, in his seventy-fourth year.

Here, too, abode his son, the second marquis, who was forfeited in 1645 by the Covenanting Parliament for his steady adherence to the king, and after being deprived of his stately castles of Gicht and Strathbogie, lost his head on the block at the Market Cross in 1649, ten years after the marriage festivities referred to.

When Maitland wrote, in 1753, this house was the residence of the Dowager of Cosmo George, third Duke of Gordon, who had been Lady Catharine Gordon, of the Aberdeen family.

It still presents a picturesque row of timber fronted gables to the street, resting on a row of carved corbels and a cornice projecting from the basement, and a series of sculptured tablets adorn it, filled with certam pious phrases peculiar to the sixteenth century. One of these is-; Vt tu lingvae,, sic e, o mear; avrium -Dominus sum; " another is-

" Constanti pectori res mortalium umbra "

Lower down the street, on the same side, at the head of Reid's Close, a square projecting turret, corbelled well out over the pavement, with a huge gable, indicates the town mansion of the Nisbets of Dirleton, an old baronial family in East Lothian, erected in the year 1624- In accordance with the general style of all Scottish houses in those days, the basement storey is arched with stone; and the first of the family who resided there seems to have been Sir John Nisbet of Dirleton, who was raised to the bench in 1664, " a man of great learning, both in law and many other things, chiefly in Greek," according to Burnet, who adds that " he was a person of great integrity, and always stood firm to the law."

He was the son of Patrick Nisbet, Lord Eastbank in 1636, and was appointed King's Advocate, and was author of an old legal work, well known as " Dirleton's Doubts." He died in 1678. He was a tool of the Bishops, and rendered himself unpopular by his zeal in prosecut-ing the unfortunate Covenanters. Of this Wodrow relates an instance.

One named Robert Gray having been brought before the Privy Council, and examined as to his knowledge of their hiding-places without success, Sir John Nisbet artfully and cruelly took a ring from his finger, and sent it to Mrs. Gray, with a message that her husband had revealed all he knew of the Whigs. Deceived by this, she told all that she knew of their lurking places, and thus many were arrested, which so affected her husband that he sickened, and died a few days after.

Nearly opposite Queensberry House, and on the north side of the street, a narrow, old-fashioned edifice is known as John Paterson's House, or " The Golfers' Land," concerning which there is recorded a romantic episode connected with James VII., when, as Duke of Albany, he held his court at Holyrood. Conspicuously placed high upon the wall is a coat-armorial, and a slab above the entrance door contains the two following inscrip-tions :-

"CUM VICTOR LUDO, SCOTIS QUI PROPRIUS, ESSE'T,
TER TRES VICTORES POST REMEDITOS AVOS, PATERSONUS, HUMO TUNC EDUCEBAT IN ALTUM HANC, QUAE VICTORES TOT TULFT UNA, DOMUM."

" I HATE NO PERSON."

The latter is an anagram on the name of " John Paterson," while the quatrain was the production of Dr. Pitcairn, and is referred to in the first volume of Gilbert Stuart's Edinburgh Magazine and Review for 1774, and may be rendered thus: -"In the year when Paterson won the prize in golfing, a game peculiar to the Scots (in which his ancestors had nine times won the same honour), he then raised this mansion, a victory more honourable than all the rest."

According to tradition, two English nobles at Holyrood had a discussion with the royal duke as to the native country of golf, which he was frequently in the habit of playing on the Links of Leith with the Duke of Lauderdale and others, and which the two strangers insisted to be an English game as well.

No evidence of this being forthcoming, while many Scottish Parliamentary edicts, some as old as the days of James II., in I457, could be quoted concerning the said game, the Englishmen, who both vaunted their expertness, offered to test the legitimacy of their pretensions on the result of a match to be played by them against His Royal Highness and any other Scotsman he chose to select.

After careful inquiry he chose a man named John Paterson, a poor shoe-maker in the Canongate, but the worthy descendant of a long line of illustrious golfers, and the associa-tion will by no means surprise, even in the present age, those who practise the game in the true old Scottish spirit. The strangers were ignominiously beaten, and the heir to the throne had the best of this practical argument, While Paterson's merits were rewarded by the stake played for, and he built the house now standing in the Canongate.

On its summit he placed the Paterson arms-three pelicans vulned on a chief three mullets; crest, a dexter-hand grasping a golf club, with the well-known Motto-FAR AND SURE. Concerning this old and well-known tradition, Chambers says, "it must be admitted there is some uncertainty, The house, the arms, and the inscriptions only indicate that Paterson built the house after being victor at golf, and that Pitcaim had a hand in decorating it."

In this doubt Wilson goes further, and believes that the Golfers' Land was lost, not won, by the gambling propensities of its owner. It was acquired by Nicol Paterson in 1609, a maltman in Leith, and from him it passed, in 1632, to his son John (and Agnes Lyel his spouse), who died 23rd April, 1663, as appears by the epitaph upon his tomb in the churchyard of Holyrood, which was extant in Maitland's time, and the strange epitaph on which is given at length by Monteith. He would appear to have been many times Bailie of the Canongate Both Nicol and John, it may be inferred from the inscriptions on the ancient edifice, were able and successful golfers.

The style of the building, says Wilson, confirms the idea that it had been rebuilt by him "with the spoils, as we are bound to presume, which he won on Leith links, from 'our auld enemies of England.' The title-deeds, how-ever, render it probable that other stakes had been played for with less success. In 1691 he grants a bond over the property for £400 Scots. This is followed by letters of caption and horning, and other direful symptoms of legal assault, which pursue the poor golfer to his grave, and remain behind as his sole legacy to his heirs."

The whole tradition, however, is too serious to be entirely overlooked, but may be taken by the reader for what it seems worth.
Bailie Paterson's successor in the old mansion was John, second Lord Bellenden of Broughton and Auchnoule, Heritable Usher of the Exchequer, who married Mary, Countess Dowager of Dalhousie, and daughter of the Earl of Drogheda. Therein he died in 1704, and was buried in the Abbey Church; and as the Union speedily followed, like other tenements so long occupied by the old courtiers in this quarter, the Golfers' Land became, as we find it now, the abode of plebeians.

Immediately adjoining the Abbey Court-house was an old, dilapidated, and gable-ended mansion of no great height, but of considerable extent, which was long indicated by oral tradition as the abode of David Rizzio. It has now given place to buildings connected with the Free Church of Scotland. Opposite these still remain some of the older tenements of this once patrician burgh, distinguishable by their lofty windows filled in with small square panes of glass ; and on the south side of the street, at its very eastern end, a series of pointed arches along the walls of the Sanctuary Court-house, alone remain to indicate the venerable Gothic porch and gate-house of the once famous Abbey of Holyrood, beneath which all that was great and good, and much that was ignoble and bad have passed and repassed in the days that are no more.

This edifice, of which views from the east and west are still preserved, is supposed to have been the work of " the good Abbot Ballantyne," who rebuilt the north side of the church in 1490. and to whom we shall have occasion to refer elsewhere. His own mansion, or lodging, stood here on the north side of the street, and the remains of it, together with the porch, were recklessly destroyed and removed by the Hereditary Keeper of the Palace in 1753.
A little gable-ended house now occupies the site of the former, and was long known as the dwelling of a very different personage, a Lucky Spence, of unenviable notoriety, whose "Last Advice" figures somewhat coarsely in the poems of Allan Ramsay.

About 1833 a discovery was made, during some alterations in this house, which was deemed illus-trative of the desperate character of its seventeenth -century occupant. " In breaking out a new window on the ground floor, a cavity was found in the solid wall, containing the skeleton of a child, with some remains of fine linen cloth in which it had been wrapped. Our authority," says Wilson, "a worthy shoemaker, who had occupied the house for forty-eight years, was present when the dis-covery was made, and described very graphically the amazement and horror of the workman, who threw away his crowbar, and was with difficulty persuaded to resume his operations."

CHAPTER LI THE CANONGATE (continued).
Execution of the Marquis of Montrose-The First Dromedary in Scotland The Streets Cleansed-Roxburgh House-London Stages of 1712 and 1754-Religious Intolerance-Declension of the Burgh.OF all the wonderful and startling spectacles wit-nessed amid the lapse of ages from the windows of the Canongate, none was perhaps more startling and pitiful than the humiliating procession which conducted the great Marquis of Montrose to his terrible doom.

On the 18th of May 1650, he was brought across the Forth to Leith, after his defeat and capture by the Covenanters at the battle of Invercarron, where he had displayed the royal standard; and it is impossible now to convey an adequate idea of the sensation excited in the city, when the people be-came aware that the Griham, the victor in so many battles, and the slayer of so many thousands of the best troops of the Covenant, was almost at their gates.

Placed on a cart-horse, he was brought in by the eastern barrier of the city, as it was resolved, by the influence of his rival and enemy, Argyle, to protract the spectacle of his humiliation as long as possible, by compelling him to traverse the entire length of the excited and tumultuous metropolis, by the Canongate and High Street, " overlooked by the loftiest houses in Europe, with their forestairs, balconies, bartizans, and outshots, that afforded every facility for beholding the spectacle. On this day the whole length of that vast thoroughfare was one living mass of human beings; but for one who had come to pity, there were more than a hundred whose hearts were filled with a tiger-like ferocity, which the clergy had inspired to a dan-gerous degree, and for the most ungenerous purpose."

The women of the kail-market and the " saints of the Bowhead" were all there, their tongues trembling with abuse, and their hands full of stones or mud to launch at the head of the fallen Cavalier, who passed through the Water Gate at four in the afternoon, greeted by a storm of yells. Seated on a lofty hurdle, he was bound with cords so tightly that he was unable to raise his hands to save his face ; preceded by the magistrates in their robes, he was bareheaded, his hat having been torn from him.

Though in the prime of manhood and perfection of manly beauty, we are told that he " looked pale, worn, and hollow-eyed, for many of the wounds he had received at Inver-carron were yet green and smarting. A single horse drew the hurdle, and thereon sat the execu-tioner of the city, clad in his ghastly and sable livery, and wearing his bonnet as a mark of dis-respect." He was escorted by the city guard, under the notorious Major Weir-Weir the wizard, whose terrible fate has been recorded elsewhere.

In front marched a number of Cavalier pri-soners, bareheaded and bound with cords. Many of the people now shed tears on witnessing this spectacle ; but, says Kincaid, they were publicly rebuked by the clergy, " who declaimed against this movement of rebel nature, and reproached them with their profane tenderness ; " while the " Wigton Papers " state that how even the widows and the mothers of those who had fallen in his wars wept for Montrose, who looked around him with the profoundest serenity as he proceeded up the Canongate, even when he came to Moray House-
" Then, as the Graham looked upward, he met the ugly smile
Of him who sold his king for gold, the master-fiend Argyle ! "


On the broad stone balcony which there projects into the street was Argyle, with a gay bridal party in their brave dresses. His son, Lord Lorne, had just been wedded to the Earl of Moray's daughter, Lady Mary Stuart, and the young couple were there, with the Marchioness, the Countess of Had-dington, Sir Archibald Johnston of Warriston, and others, to exult over the fallen Royalist. " Their malice was not confined to that," says Monteith of Salmonet ; " they caused the cart to be stopped for some time before the Earl of Moray's house, where, by an unparalleled baseness, Argyle, with the chief men of his cabal, who never durst look Montrose in the face while he had his sword in his hand, appeared in the balcony in order to feed merrily their sight with a spectacle which struck horror into all good men. But Montrose astonished them with his looks, and his resolution confounded them."

Then with broad vulgarity the marchioness spat full in his face! Argyle shrank back at this, and an English Cavalier who stood among the crowd below reviled him sharply, while Lorne and his bride continued to toy and smile in the face of the people. (" Wigton Papers.")

So protracted was this melancholy spectacle that seven o'clock had struck before the hurdle reached the gate of the Tolbooth, where Montrose, when unbound, gave the executioner a gold coin, saying " This is your reward, my man, for driving the cart."

On the following day, Sunday, the ministers in their pulpits, according to Wishart, rebuked the people for not having stoned him. One declared that " he was a faggot of hell, and that he al-ready saw him burning," while he was constantly taunted by Major Weir as " a dog, atheist, and murderer."

The story of Montrose's execution on the 21st of May, when be was hanged at the Cross on a gibbet thirty feet high, with the record of his battles suspended from his neck, how he died with glorious magnanimity and was barbarously quartered, belongs to the general annals of the nation ; but the City Treasurer's account contains some curious items connected with that great legal tragedy :-

1650. Februar. To making a scaffold at ye Cross for burning ye Earl of Montrose's papers. 2 8 0
May 13 For making a seat on a cart to carry him from ye Water Gate to ye Tolboooth 12 16 0
For making a high new gallows and double leather and setting up a galbert 12 8 4
Pd. 6 workmen for carrying ye trunk of his body and burying it in ye Burrow muir 2 0 0 Pd. the Lockman for making sd. grave deeper and covering it again 1 16 0
Pd. for sharping the axe for striking away the head, leg, and arms from the body 0 12 0
As a set-off -against these items, we have the following, in 1660-1 when Argyle's fate came:-
To Alexander Davidson for a new axe to ye Maiden, and is to maintainit all ye days of his life 70 12 0

To 4 Drummer: when Argyle and Swinton were brought from Leith 14 8 0
To 17 extra Drummers, 2 days, when Montrosewas buried and Aygyle executed 21 12 0

The marquis was interred amid great pomp in the Church of St. Giles at the Restoration but when a search was made for his remains in the Chapman aisle, in April, 1879, no trace of them whatever could be found there.
Amid the gloom and horror of scenes such as these executions, and the general events of the wars of the Covenant, all traces of gaiety, and especially of theatrical entertainments, disappeared in Edinburgh as forbidden displays; but in January, 1659, the citizens were regaled with the sight of a travel-ling dromedary, the first that had ever been in Scotland.

Nicoll describes it as "ane heigh great beast, callit ane dummodary, quhilk being keepit ,clos in the Canongite, none had a sight of it, with-out three pence the person. ........... It was very big, and of great height, cloven futted like unto a kow, and on the bak ane saitt, as it were a sadill to sit on. Thair was brocht in with it ane lytill baboun, faced lyke unto an aip."

In 1686 the public attendance at mass by some of the officers of state excited a tumult in the city, and many persons of rank were insulted on return-ing therefrom by the rioters. One of these, a journeyman baker, was, by order of the Privy Council, whipped through the Canongate, and ultimately the Foot Guards had to fire on the mob that assembled.

In that year an Act of Parliament empowered the magistrates to impose a tax of £500 sterling yearly, for three years, to cleanse the town and Canongate, and free both from beggars; and in 1687 the whole members of the College of Justice volun-tarily offered to bear their full share of this tax, and appointed two of their body to be present when it was levied.

In 1692 we find an instance in the Canongate of one of the many troubles which in those days arose from corporation privileges, by which the poor and industrious tradesman was made the victim of monopoly.

In the open ground which now surrounds Milton House, there stood in those days the mansion of the Earls of Roxburgh, surrounded by a beautiful garden. In October, 1692, William Somerville, a wright-burgess of the city, was engaged on some repairs in this house, when Thomas Kinloch, Deacon of the Wrights in the Canongate, came with others, and violently carried off all the tools of Somerville and his workmen, on the plea that they were not freemen of the burgh; and when the tools were demanded formally, two days after, they were withheld.

Robert, Earl of Roxburgh (who afterwards died on his travels abroad), was then a minor, but his curators resented the proceedings of Kinloch, and sued him for riot and oppression. Apparently, if the Roxburgh mansion had been subject to the jurisdiction of the Canongate, the Privy Council would have given no redress ; but when the earl's ancestor, in 1636, had given up the superiority of the Canongate, as he reserved his house to be holden of the Crown, it was found that the local corporation had no right to interfere with his workmen, and Somerville's tools were restored to him by order of the Council.

Earl Robert was succeeded-in this house by his brother John, fifth Earl and first Duke of Rox-burgh, K.G., who sold his Union vote for £500, became Secretary of State for Scotland in 1716, and died in 1741.

Long ere that time the effect of the Union had done its worst upon the old court burgh. Maitland, writing in 1753, says :-" This place has suffered more by the union of the kingdoms than all the other parts of Scotland : for having, before that period, been the residence of the chief of the Scottish nobility, it was then in a flourishing condition; but being deserted by them, many of their houses are fallen down, and others in a ruinous condition; it is ill a piteous case ! "

Five years after the Union we find a London coach announced as starting from the Canongate, the advertisement for which, with regard to expedi-tion, comfort, and economy, presents a curious con-trast to the announcements of today, and is worth giving at length, as we find it in the Newcastle Courant of October, 1712.

"Edinburgh Berwick, Newcastle, Durham, and London Stage-coach begins on Monday, 13th October, 1712. All that desire to pass from Edinburgh to London, or from London to Edinburgh or any place on that road, let them repair to Mr. John Bailies, at the Coach and Horses at the head of the Canongate, every Saturday, or the Black Swan in Holborn, every other Monday, at both of which places they may be received in a stage-coach which performs the whole journey in thirteen days, without any stoppage if God permit, having eighty able horses to perform the whole stage. Each passenger paying £4 10s. for the whole journey,. allowing each 20 lbs. weight, and all above to pay 6d. per lb. The coach sets off at six in the morn-ing. Performed by Henry Harrison, Nich.Speighl, Rob. Garbe, Rich.Croft."

When we consider the cost of food on a thirteen days' journey, the fees to successive guards and drivers, the small allowance of luggage, and the overcharge, the contrast of travelling in the days of Anne and Victoria seems great indeed.

In July, 1754, the Edinburgh Courant advertises the stage-coach, drawn by six horses, with a pos-tilhon on one of the leaders, as " a new, genteel, two-end glass machine, hung on steel springs; exceeding light and easy, to go in ten days in summer and tweIve in winter," setting out from Hosea Eastgate's, at the Coach and Horses, Dean Street, Soho, and from John Somerville's, in the Canongate, every other Tuesday. "In the winter to set out from London and Edinburgh every other Monday morning, and to go to Burrowbridge on Saturday night; and to set out from thence on Monday morning, and to get to London and Edinburgh on Saturday night. Passengers to pay as usual. Performed (if God permits) by your dutiful servant, HOSEA EASTGATE. Care is taken of small parcels, according to their value."

A few years before this move in the way of pro-gress, the Canongate had been the scene of a little religious persecution; thus we find that on a Sunday in the April of 1722 the Duchess Dowager of Gordon, Elizabeth Howard, daughter of the Duke of Norfolk, venturing to have mass cele-brated at her house in the Canongate for herself and some fifty other Roman Catholics, Bailie Hawthorn, magistrate of the burgh, broke open the doors at the head of an armed party, and seized the whole. The ladies he permitted to depart on bail, but John Wallace, the priest, he cast into prison; this he did all the more zealously that some thirty-five years before the latter had been-according to Wodrow -a Protestant clergyman. Thomas Kennedy, the Lord Advocate, refused bail for him, though five persons of rank offered it. It was at length taken to the extent of 5,000 merks, and failing to stand his trial under the statute of 1700, according to Arnot's " Criminal Trials," he was outlawed.

Notwithstanding the gloom, ruin, and desertion of which Maitland wrote in 1753, many persons of rank and note continued to linger in the Canon-gate, and a curious list of them is given by Robert Chambers, as taken down by " the late Mr. Chalmers Izett, whose memory extended back to 1769." It includes two dukes, sixteen earls, two dowager countesses, seven lords, and seven lords of session, thirteen baronets, four commanders of the forces in Scotland, and five eminent men- --Adam Smith, Drs, Young, Dugald Stewart, Gardner, and Gregory; and he adds that the last blow was given to the locality by the opening of the road along the Calton Hill in 1817, which rendered it no longer the avenue of approach to the city from the east.

Among the last of the old noblesse who resided in it was the Lady Janet Sinclair, daughter of William, Lord Strathnaver (who died in July, 1720). She was the relict of George Sinclair of Ulbster, and mother of Sir John Sinclair, the famous agriculturist. She died in her seventy-eighth year, in June, 1795.

CHAPTER LII THE CANONGATE-(continued).
Closes and Alleys on the North Side-Flesh-market and Coull's Closes-Canongate High School-Rae's Close-Kinloch's Lodging-New Street and its Residents-Hall of the Shoemakers-Sir Thos.Dalyell-The Canongate Washhouse-Panmure House-Hannah Robertson-The White Horse Hostel-The Water Gate.

AMONG the earliest breaches made in the Old Town by the City Improvement Trustees were those at the head of the Canongate, where several closes were swept away, especially on the north side, where we now find the entrances to Jeffrey and Cranston Streets.

The first of these was the old Fleshmarket Close (which adjoined Leith Wynd on the east), once a thickly-peopled locality, but a cul-de-sac, the bottom of which was blocked up by ancient buildings. On the west side of this squalid and filthy alley there stood a mansion, the interior of which pre-sented undoubted evidence of its magnificence in the sixteenth century, as it had among its many carved details a beautifully canopied, cusped, and ornate Gothic niche, with two shields, of which a drawing has been preserved, and which, in de-tails, is identical with those found in the palace of Mary of Guise. Traditionally it was named " the old Parliament House," wherein it is sup-posed the Regent Lennox, with Morton, Mar, Glencairn, and others, held their meeting in the troublesome time subsequent to the enforced abdi-cation of Queen Mary. At the foot of the close there was once an opening to the old Flesh-market of the Canongate-hence its name-an area shown in Edgar's map as entered by a gate, and measuring about 100 feet by 60.

Coull's Close lay next, with a very narrow entrance, and latterly it opened into Macdowal Street, and long exhibited-ere it absolutely tumbled into ruins-many a sculptured doorway, and many an inscription dictated by the piety or pride of its former inhabitants, of whom not even the name can now be traced.

The High School Close adjoined it, so named as leading to a large, and handsome edifice which stood in an open court at its foot, and was long occupied as the burgh High School. In the central pediment, which bore a sundial, was the date 1704, and Dutch-looking dormer windows studded its roof, but the school had a date far beyond the days of Queen Anne; it appears to have been founded by the monks of Holyrood, and is referred to in a charter granted by James V. in 1529; therein mention is made of Henryson, clerk and orator of the monastery, having taught with success in the grammar school of the Canon-gate, and many notices of this old educational establishment occur in the Register of the Burgh, printed in the " Maitland Club Miscellany."

Under date 5th of April, 1580, Gilbert Tailyour, schoolmaster, renounced his gift of the school, given him for his lifetime by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, in favour of the bailies and Council, who therefore restored it to him.
Of Midcommon Close, a narrow, blocked-up, and tortuous alley, little more is known than the name; but there once stood on its eastern side a stately old tenement, bearing the date 16I4, with this pious legend: I. TAKE. THE. LORD. JESUS. AS MY. ONLY. ALL. SUFFICIENT. PORTION. TO. CONTENT. ME. This was cut in massive Roman letters, and the house was adorned by handsome dormer windows and moulded stringcourses; but of the person who dwelt therein no memory remains. And the same must be said of the edifices in the closes called Morocco-and Logan's, and several others.

Between these two lies Rae's Close, very dark and narrow, leading only to a house with a back green, beyond which can be seen the Calton Hill. In the sixteenth century this alley was the only open thoroughfare to the north between Leith Wynd -and the Water Gate. In 1568 the foot of it was closed by a stone wall for security, and there was ordered to be "cast ane stank at the slope yatt comis fra the Justice Clark landis to the Abbaye, on tllc south side of this burghe." In 1574 a gate with a secure lock was placed upon it for the same purpose.

In 1647 only three open thoroughfares are shown to the north-one the Tolbooth Wynd-and all are closed by arched gates in a wall bounding the Canongate on the north, and lying parallel with a Iong watercourse flowing away towards Craigentinnie, and still extant.

Kinloch's Close, described in 1856 as "short, dark, and horrible," took its name from Henry Kinloch, a wealthy burgess of the Canongate in the days of Queen Mary,, who committed to his hospitality, in 1565, when she is said to have acceded to the League of Bayonne, the French ambassadors M. de Rambouillet and Clernau, who came on a mission from the Court of France. Their ostensible visit, however, was more probably to invest Darnley with the order of St. Michael. They had come through England with a train of thirty-six mounted gentlemen. After presenting themselves before the king and queen at Holy-rood, according to the "Diurnal of Occurrents," they '"there after depairtit to Heny Kynloches lugeing in the Cannogait besyid Edinburgh"

A few days after Darnley was solemnly invested with the collar of St. Michael in the abbey church ; and on the 11th of February the ambassadors were banqueted, and a masked ball was given, when " the Queenis Grace and all her Maries and ladies -were cled in men's apparell" and each of them pre-sented a sword, " brawlic and maist artificiallie made and embroiderit with gold, to the said am-bassatour and his gentlemen." Next day they were banqueted in the castle by the Earl of Mar, and on the next ensuing," they took their departure for France and England.

Kinloch's mansion and that which adjoined it- the abode of the Earls of Angus-were pulled down about 1760, when New Street was built, "a curious sample of fashionable modern improve-ment, prior to the bold scheme of the New Town" and first called Young Street, according to Kincaid. Though sorely faded and decayed, it still presents a series of semi-aristocratic, detached, and not in-digent mansions of the plain form peculiar to the time. Among its inhabitants were Lords Kames and Hailes, Sir Philip Ainslie, the Lady Betty Anstruther, Christian Ramsay daughter of the poet, Dr. Young the eminet physician, and others.

Henry Home, Lord Kames, "who was raised to the bench in 1752, occupied a self-contained house at the head of the street facing the Canon-gate on the east side, and then deemed one of the best in the city; thus strangers were taken by their friends to see it as one of the local sights, with its front of grooved ashlar-work. Born in 1695, he early exhibited great talent with profound legal knowledge, and the mere enumeration of his works on law and history would fill a large page. He was of a playful disposition, and fond of prac-tical jokes; but during the latter part of his life he entertained a nervous dread that he would outlive his noble faculties, and was pleased to find that by the rapid decay of his frame he would escape that dire calamity; and he died, after a brief illness, in 1782, in the eighty-seventh year of his age. The great Dr. Hunter, of the Tron church, afterwards lived and died in this house.

Lord Hailes, to whom we have referred elsewhere, resided during his latter years in New Street; but prior to his promotion to the bench he generally lived at New Hailes. His house, No. 23, was latterly possessed by Mr. Ruthven, the ingenious improver of the Ruthven printing-press.

Christian Ramsay, the daughter of "honest Allan," and so named from her mother, Christian Ross, lived for many years in New Street. She was an amiable and kind-hearted woman, and possessed something of her father's gift of verse, In her seventy-fourth year she was thrown down by a hackney-coach and had her leg broken - yet she recovered, and lived to be eighty-eight. Lead-ing a solitary life, she took a great fancy to cats, and besides supporting many in her house, cosily disposed of in bandboxes, she laid out food for others around her house. "Not a word of obloquy would she listen to against the species," says the author of "Traditions of Edinburgh,"

"alleging, when any wickedness of a cat was spoken of, that the animal must have acted under provocation, for by nature, she asserted, they were harmless. Often did her maid go with morning messages to her friends, inquiring, with her compliments, after their pet cats. Good Miss Ramsay was also a friend to horses, and indeed to all creatures. When she observed a carter ill-treating his horse she would march up to him, tax him with cruelty, and by the very earnestness of her remonstrances arrest the barbarian's hand. So, also, when she saw one labouring in the street with the appearance of defective diet, she would send rolls to its master, entreating him to feed the animal. These peculiarities, though a little eccentric, are not unpleasing; and I cannot be sorry to record those of the daughter of one whose head and heart were an honour to his country."

The hideous chapel of ease built in New Street in 1794 occupied the site of the houses of Henry Kinloch and the Earls of Angus, the latter of which formed during the eighteenth century the banking office of the unfortunate firm of Douglas, Heron, and Co., whose failure spread ruin and dismay far and wide in Scotland.

Little Jack's Close, a narrow alley leading by a bend into New Street, and Big Jack's Close, which led to an open court, adjoin the thoroughfare of 1760, and both are doubtless named from some forgotten citizen or speculative builder of other days.

In the former stood the hall of the once wealthy corporation of the Cordiners or Shoemakers of the Canongate, on the west side, adorned with all the insignia of the craft, and furnished for their convivalia with huge tables and chairs of oak, in addition to a carved throne, surmounted by a crowned paring-knife, and dated 1682, for the solemn inauguration of King Crispin on St. Crispin's Day, the 25th of October.

This corporation can be traced back to the 10th of June, 1574, when William Quhite was elected Deacon of the Cordiners in the Canongate, in place of the late Andrew Purvis.

lt was of old their yearly custom to elect a king, who held his court in this Corporation Hall, from whence, after coronation, he was borne in procession through the streets, attended by his subject souters clad in fantastic habiliments. Latterly he was conducted abroad on a finely caparisoned horse, and clad in ermined robes attended by mock officers of state and preceded by a champion in armour; and in fooleries such as these the funds of the corporation became, in time, utterly exhausted before the classic of the last century.

The Shoemakers' Close was, at the end of the last century, the abode of a curious dwarf, known as Geordie Cranstoun, who figures twice in Kay's remarkable portraits.

In Big Jack's Close there was extant, until within a few years ago, the town mansion of General Sir Thomas Dalyell of Binns, commander-chief of the Scottish forces, whose beard remained uncut after the death of Charles I., and who raised the Scots Greys on the 25th of November, 1681, and clad them first in grey uniform, and at their head served as a merciless persecutor of the out-lawed Covenanters, with a zest born of his service in Russia. The chief apartment in this house has been described as a large hall, with an arched or coach roof, adorned, says Wilson, with a painting of the sun in the centre, surrounded by gilded rays on an azure dome- Sky, clouds, and silver stars filled up the remaining space.

The large windows were partially closed with oak shutters in the old Scottish fashion. "'The kitchen also was worthy of notice, for a fireplace formed of a plain circular arch, of such unusual dimensions that popular credulity might have assigned it for the perpetra-tion of those rites it had ascribed to him of spitting and roasting his miserable captives !................. . A chapel formerly stood on the site of the open court, but all traces of it were removed in 1779. It is not at all inconsistent with the character of the fierce old Cavalier that he should have erected a private chapel for his own use."

It was to this house in Big Jack's Close that the Rev. John Blackadder was brought a prisoner in 1681, guarded by soldiers under Johnstone, the town major, and accompanied by his son Thomas, who died a merchant In New England, and where that interview took place which is related in Blackadder's Memories," by D. A. Crichton:-

"I have brought you a prisoner," said Major Johnstone.
"Take him to the guard," said Dalyell, who was about to walk forth.
On this, the poor divine, whose emotions must have been far from enviable in such a terrible pre-sence, said, timidly, " May I speak with you sir ? "
"You have already spoken too much, sir," replied Dalyell, whose blood always boiled at the sight of a Covenanter, " and I should hang you with my own hands over that outshot !

On this, Major Johnstone, dreading what might ensue, took hastily away his prisoner, who, by order of the Privy Council, was sent to the Bass Rock, escorted by a party of the Life Guards, and there he died, a captive, in his seventieth year.

In the Tolbooth Wynd, on the east side thereof and near the foot, was built the old Charity Workhouse of the burgh. It was established by subscrip-tion, and opened for the reception of the poor in 1761, the expense beeing defrayed by collections at the church doors and voluntary contributions, without any assessment whatever ; and in those days the managers were chosen annually from the public societies of the Canongate. The city plan of 1647 shows but seven houses within the gate, on the west side of the Wynd, and open gardens on the other, eastward nearly to the Water Gate.

Panmure Close, the third alley to the eastward- one with a good entrance, and generally more pleasant than most of those narrow old streets-is so named from its having been the access to Pan-mure House, an ancient mansion, which still remains at the foot of Monroe's Close, and bore, till within the last few years, the appearance of those partly quadrangular manor-houses so common in Scot-land during the seventeenth century.

It became greatly altered after being brought into juxtaposition with the prosaic details of the Panmure Iron Foundry, but it formed the town residence of the Earls of Panmure, the fourth of whom, James, who distinguished himself as a volunteer at the siege of Luxemburg, and was Privy Councillor to James VII., a bitter opponent of the Union, lost his title and estates after the battle of Sheriffmuir, and died, an exile, in Paris. His nephew, William Maule, who served in the Scots Guards at Dettingen and Fontenoy, obtained an Irish peerage in 1743 as Earl Panmure of Forth, and was the last who possessed this house, in which he was resident in the middle of the last century, and was succeeded in it by the Countess of Aberdeen.

From 1778 till his death, in 1790, it formed the residence of Adam Smith, author of " The Wealth of Nations," after he came to Edinburgh as Commissioner of the Customs, an appointment obtained by the friendship of the Duke of Buccleuch. A few days before his death, at Panmure House, he gave ,orders to destroy all his manuscripts except some detached essays, which were afterwards published by his executors, Drs. Joseph Black and James Hutton, and his library, a valuable one, he left to his nephew, Lord Reston. From that old mansion the philosopher was borne to his grave in an ob-scure nook of the Canongate churchyard. During the last years of his blameless life his bachelor household had been managed by a female cousin, Miss Jeanie Douglas, who acquired a great control over him.

At the end of Panmure Close was the mansion of John Hunter, a wealthy burgess, who was Treasurer of the Canongate in 1568, and who built it in 1565, when Mary was on the throne. Wilson refers to it as the earliest private edifice in the burgh, and says " it con-sists ', like other buildings of the period of a lower erection of stone with a forestair leading to the first floor, and an ornamental turnpike within, affording access to the upper chambers.

At the top of a very steep wooden stair, constucted alongside of the latter, a very rich specimen of carved oak panelling remains in good preservation, adorned with the Scottish lion, displayed within a broad wreath and surrounded by a variety of ornaments. The door-way of the inner turnpike bears on the sculptured lintel the initials I. H., a shield charged with a chevron, and a hunting horn in base, and the date 1565." It bore also a comb with six teeth. It was demolished in August, 1853.

A little lower down are Big and Little Lochend Closes, which join each other near the bottom and run into the north back of the Canongate. In the former are some good houses, but of no great antiquity. One of these was occupied by Mr. Gordon of Carlton in 1784 ; and in the other, during the close of the last and first years of the present cen-tury, there resided a remarkable old lady, named Mrs. Hannah Robertson, who was well known in her time as a reputed grand-daughter of Charles II.

From her published memoir-which, after its first appearance in 1792, reached a tenth edition in 1806, and was printed by James Tod in Forrester's Wynd-and from other sources, we learn that she was the widow of Robert Robertson, a merchant in Perth, and was the daughter of a burgess named George Swan, son of Charles II. and Dorothea Helena, daughter of John Kirkhoven, Dutch baron of Ruppa, the beautiful Countess of Derby, who had an intrigue with the king during the protracted absence of her husband in Holland, Charles, eighth earl, who died in 1672 without heirs.

According to her narrative, the child was given to nurse to the wife of Swan, a gunner at Windsor, a woman whose brother, Bartholomew Gibson, was the king's farrier at Edinburgh; and it would further appear that the latter obtained on trust for George Swan, from Charles II. or his brother the Duke of York, a grant of lands in New Jersey, where Gibson's son died about 1750, as would appear from a notice in the London Chronicle for 1771.

Be all this as it may, the old lady referred to was a great favourite with all those of Jacobite proclivities, and at the dinners of the Jacobite always sat on the right band of the president, till her death, which occurred in Little Lochend Close in 1808, when she had attained her eighty-fourth year, and a vast concourse attended her funeral, which took place in the Friends' burial place at the Pleasance. Unusually tall in stature, and beautiful even in old age, her figure, with black velvet capuchin and cane, was long familiar in the streets of Edinburgh.

From a passage in the " Edinburgh Historical Re-gister" for 1791-2, she would appear to have been a futile applicant for a pension to the Lords of the Treasury, though she had many powerful friends, including the Duchess of Gordon and the Countess of Northesk, to whom she dedicated a book named The Lady's School of Arts."

One of the most picturesque and interesting houses in the Canongate is one situated in what was called Davidson's Close, the old "White Horse Hostel," on a dormer window of which is the date 1603. It was known as the " White Horse" a century and more before the accession of the House of Hanover, and is traditionally said to have taken its name from a favourite white palfrey when the range of stables that form its basement had been occupied as the royal mews. The ad-jacent Water Gate took its name from a great
horse-pond which was, no doubt, an appendage to this establishment. ln 1639, when Charles I. had made his first peace with the Covenanters, and came temporarily to Berwick, he sent messages to the chief nobles of the National Church party to have a conference with him.

In obedience to this, with their various retinues, they were all mounting their horses in the yard of this inn, to which a kind of arched porte-cochère gives access from the main street, when a mob, taught wisely by the clergy to distrust a monarch who was under English influences, compelled them to desist and abandon their intended journey. The Earl of Montrose alone broke through all restraint ; he went to the king, and from, thence-forward was lost to the cause of the Covenant for ever.

The invariable mode of a gentleman setting out for London in those days was to come to the White Horse with his saddle-bags, boots, and gambadoes, and there engage a suitable roadster to convey him the whole way. In more recent times it was associated with the Cavalier officers and Highland gentleman of Charles Edward's picturesque court, and the quarters of Scott's hero, Captain Waverley. According to a passage in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1786, there were then set apart, " in the inns at Edinburgh Glasgow, &c., English rooms, where English travellers could eat and converse together."

When the White Horse ceased to be an inn is unknown, but the vicinity is connected with the memory of more than one Episcopal dignitary. A tenement which serves to complete the courtyard is pointed out as the residence of John Paterson, Bishop of Edinburgh in 1679, a special object of hate to the Covenanters, as he had been chaplain to the cruel and brutal Duke of Lauderdale.

After his translation to Glasgow in 1687, he was succeeded by Bishop Alexander Rose, who was ejected in the following year by the Revolution party-the last survivor of established Episcopacy in Edinburgh. He has been described by Bishop Keith as a man of sweet disposition and most venerable aspect. He died on the 20th of March, 1720, in his sister's house in the Canongate.. "Tradition," says Chambers, "points to the floor, immediately above the porte-cochère (of the White Horse), by which the stable-yard is entered, as the humble mansion in which the Bishop breathed his last. I know at least one person who never goes past the place without an emotion of respect,, remembering the self-abandoning devotion of the Scottish prelates to their engagements at the Revolution."

A barrier called the Water Gate, existing now only in name, closed the lower end of the street on the north side. lt was by this avenue that the English entered Edinburgh in 1544, and advanced to their futile attack on the Castle. It was the principal entrance from the east, not only to the Canongate, but to the whole city prior to the North Bridge ; nearly all public entrances were made by it, and many state prisoners, on their way to execution, have passed through it ; but the Water Gate, and the " Post and yet passand in to the Abbaye Knok," have long been numbered with the past. A single rib, or arch of wood, sur-mounted by a ball, indicated the locality latterly, till it was blown down in 1822.

According to the " City Records," the Council' granted to the Baron Bailie, of the Canongate, as a gift of escheat, all the goods and chattels of witches found therein ; accordingly that official, in, 166i1 was not long in discovering a certain Barbara Mvlne, who Janet Allen, burnt for witch-craft, once saw enter by the Water Gate in the "likeness of a catt,' and did change her garment- under her owni staire, and went into her house."

Canongate dues were long levied at the site of the gate after it had ceased to exist ; but on the fall of' the ornamental structure referred to, the fishwomen of Musselburgh and Newhaven stoutly refused. payment of all burghal customs on the contents of their creels, till the magistrates again restored-but for a time only-the arch of wood across the street.

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